節選自紐約時報What Role Do Teachers Play in Education?
原文鏈接：（What Role Do Teachers Play in Education? - The New York Times?
In 2009, Time magazine hailed an online math program piloted at three New York City public schools, as one of the year’s 50 best innovations. Each day, the software generated individualized math “playlists” for students who then chose the “modality” in which they wished to learn — software, a virtual teacher or a flesh-and-blood one. A different algorithm sorted teachers’ specialties and schedules to match a student’s needs. “It generates the lessons, the tests and it grades the tests,” one veteran instructor marveled.
Although the program made only modest improvements in students’ math scores and was adopted by only a handful of New York schools (not the 50 for which it was slated), it serves as a notable example of a pattern that Andrea Gabor charts in “After the Education Wars.” For more than three decades, an unlikely coalition of corporate philanthropists, educational technology entrepreneurs and public education bureaucrats has spearheaded a brand of school reform characterized by the overvaluing of technology and standardized testing and a devaluing of teachers and communities. The trend can be traced back to a hyperbolic 1983 report, “A Nation at Risk,” issued by President Ronald Reagan’s National Commission on Excellence in Education. Against the backdrop of an ascendant Japanese economy and consistent with President Reagan’s disdain for public education (and teachers’ unions), “A Nation at Risk” blamed America’s ineffectual schools for a “rising tide of mediocrity” that was diminishing America’s global role in a new high-tech world.
雖然該課程并未大幅提升學生的數學成績，且僅有少數紐約學校采用（并非預期進駐的50所學校），但卻是安德烈埃·加博爾（Andrea Gabor）在《教育戰爭》（After the Education Wars）中所提出的教改模式的一個典型范例。三十多年來，看似不可能達成統一戰線的眾多企業慈善家、教育技術企業家和公共教育官員率先掀起一股學校改革風潮，其特點就是極度重視技術及標準化測試，同時弱化對教師和社會的關注。這一風潮可以追溯到羅納德·里根政府時期的“國家教育卓越委員會（National Commission on Excellence in Education）”于1983年發布的一份風格夸張的報告——《處于危險中的國家》（A Nation at Risk）。在日本經濟崛起的背景下，里根總統曾對美國的公共教育（及教師工會）表現出蔑視之情，與此相呼應，《處于危險中的國家》也將美國“平庸之輩越來越多”歸咎于美國學校的無能，認為這些庸才正不斷削弱美國在高新科技領域的全球影響力。
Policymakers turned their focus to public education as a matter of national security, one too important (and potentially too profitable) to entrust to educators. The notion that top-down decisions by politicians, not teachers, should determine what children need was a thread running through the bipartisan 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, the Obama administration’s Race to the Top and state-initiated Common Core standards, and the current charter-driven agenda of Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. “Accountability” became synonymous with standardized tests, resulting in a testing juggernaut with large profits going to commercial publishing giants like Pearson.
政策制定者隨后將關注點轉向公共教育領域。在政策制定者看來，公共教育已上升至國家安全的高度，其重要性（或高盈利性）完全無法讓政策制定者將發展公共教育的任務放心交予教育部門。有種觀點認為，決定兒童教育需求的應當是政治人物（而非教師群體）自上而下的政策決策，而從2001年美國兩黨支持通過的“有教無類法案（No Child Left Behind Act）”，到奧巴馬政府的“力爭上游（Race to the Top）”計劃與州共同核心課程標準，再到現任美國教育部長貝琪·德沃斯（Betsy DeVos）推行的特許學校議程，這一觀念始終貫穿其中。“責任制”已成為標準化測試的代名詞，導致培生教育（Pearson）等教育測試領域的大體量、高利潤機構轉型成為商業出版巨頭。
The education wars have been demoralizing for teachers, over 17 percent of whom drop out within their first five years. No one believes that teaching to the test is good pedagogy, but what are the options when students’ future educational choices, teachers’ salaries and retention and, in some states, the fate of entire schools rest on student test scores? In meticulous detail, Gabor documents reform’s institutional failings. She describes the turns in New York City’s testing-obsessed policies, the undermining of Michigan’s once fine public schools and the heartbreaking failure of New Orleans to remake its schools after Hurricane Katrina.
節選自聯合國教科文組織官網，原文鏈接如下：（Angkor - UNESCO World Heritage Centre ?https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668/）
Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. For several centuries, Angkor was the centre of the Khmer Kingdom. With impressive monuments, several different ancient urban plans and large water reservoirs, the site is a unique concentration of features testifying to an exceptional civilization. Temples, exemplars of Khmer architecture, are closely linked to their geographical context as well as being imbued with symbolic significance. The architecture and layout of the successive capitals bear witness to a high level of social order and ranking within the Khmer Empire. Angkor is therefore a major site exemplifying cultural, religious and symbolic values, as well as containing high architectural, archaeological and artistic significance.
The Angkor complex encompasses all major architectural buildings and hydrological engineering systems from the Khmer period. All the individual aspects illustrate the intactness of the site very much reflecting the splendor of the cities that once were. The site integrity however, is put under dual pressures: endogenous: exerted by more than 100,000 inhabitants distributed over 112 historic settlements scattered over the site, who constantly try to expand their dwelling areas; exogenous: related to the proximity of the town of Siem Reap, the seat of the province and a tourism hub.
Angkor is one of the largest archaeological sites in operation in the world. Tourism represents an enormous economic potential but it can also generate irreparable destructions of the tangible as well as intangible cultural heritage. Many research projects have been undertaken, since the international safeguarding program was first launched in 1993. The scientific objectives of the research (e.g. anthropological studies on socio-economic conditions) result in a better knowledge and understanding of the history of the site, and its inhabitants that constitute a rich exceptional legacy of the intangible heritage. The purpose is to associate the “intangible culture” to the enhancement of the monuments in order to sensitize the local population to the importance and necessity of its protection and preservation and assist in the development of the site as Angkor is a living heritage site where Khmer people in general, but especially the local population, are known to be particularly conservative with respect to ancestral traditions and where they adhere to a great number of archaic cultural practices that have disappeared elsewhere.
Moreover, the Angkor Archaeological Park is very rich in medicinal plants, used by the local population for treatment of diseases. The Preah Khan temple is considered to have been a university of medicine and the NeakPoan an ancient hospital.
此外，吳哥考古公園（Angkor Archaeological Park）內還生長著種類豐富的藥用植物，當地居民用它們治療多種疾病。圣劍寺（Preah Khan）據信過去曾是一所醫藥學府，而尼克潘（NeakPoan）則被認為是一家古老的醫院。
China is expected to see an increase in the number of elderly people aged over 60 years to around 255 million by 2020, raising its percentage of the total population to about 17.8%; the older population will rise to about 29 million, and the number of seniors living alone will jump to about 118 million. The regulations and policies relating to the elderly people need to be more systematic, coordinated, relevant and feasible; the development of undertakings for the aged and the construction of old-age service systems in urban and rural areas experience prominent imbalance; the elderly care service is plagued by the shortage of effective supply, low quality and effectiveness, and manpower shortage.
The goal is laid out in the Plan that by 2020 overall development level of the aging cause will see a significant enhancement, and the old-age service systems will become improved and perfected. Social security systems such as social insurance, social welfare, and social assistance are effectively linked to charitable causes to effectively guarantee the needs of the elderly people for basic livelihood, basic medical care, and basic care. The development of aging cause and construction of old-age service systems demonstrate obvious improvement in legalization, informationization, standardization and normalization. Market vitality and social creativity have been fully stimulated. The services and products for elderly people have more diversified suppliers, more abundant content, and better quality. A credit-centered new market regulatory mechanism has been well-established. The elderly people have received solid protection on their legitimate rights and interests, and have been provided with continuously improved conditions for them to be part of social development.
漢譯英 passage 2
China’s reform originated in rural areas with the purpose of adjusting the relationship between farmers and land. Before 1978, hundreds of millions of Chinese people were struggling to meet their basic daily needs. After 40 years of development, more than 700 million people in rural areas of China were lifted out of poverty. From 1978 to 1985, the profound reform of China’s rural economic system provided a strong impetus for economic growth and a dramatic reduction of the poverty-stricken population. According to the standards at that time, 50 percent of the rural population in poverty met their basic needs during this period. And even according to the poverty alleviation standards at present, more than 100 million rural people were lifted out of poverty during the period. This not only laid a solid foundation for China to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects but also made great contributions to poverty alleviation and development for all mankind.
In 1978, farmers from 18 households in Xiaogang Village of Fengyang County, Anhui Province took the first step of China’s rural reform. By removing many constraints of the planned economic system and conducting family management based on the household responsibility system, farmers received contracted land they could freely decide what to grow, which greatly stimulated their enthusiasm for agricultural production.
英譯漢 passage 1
題源：這一篇摘選自世界衛生組織官網上世衛組織總干事特德羅斯·阿達諾姆博士（Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus）的一篇演講The right to health
Both WHO’s constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Right assert that health is a human right, not a privilege for those who can afford it. Over time, that right has made its way into both national and international law. But importantly, the right to health is not simply a noble idea on a piece of paper.
世界衛生組織《組織法》與《世界人權宣言》（Universal Declaration of Human Right）均強調健康是一項人權，而不是那些有經濟實力者享有的特權。隨著時間的推移，健康權已逐漸載入各國法律和國際法律。但重要的是，健康權絕非只是紙上空談。
It has been a platform for major improvements in global health. Since 1948, life expectancy has increased by 25 years. Maternal and childhood mortality have plummeted. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio is on the brink. We have turned the tide on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Deaths from malaria have dropped dramatically. New vaccines have made once-feared diseases easily preventable. And there are many other causes for celebration. But even as we continue to struggle with old threats, new ones have arisen. Climate change will have profound effects on health. Antimicrobial resistance has the potential to undo the gains of modern medicine. Vaccine hesitancy is putting millions of young lives at risk. Noncommunicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer diabetes, hypertension, lung diseases and mental illnesses have become the major killers of our time. And of course, we continue to face the ever-present threat of outbreaks and other health emergencies.
In the past 12 months, WHO has responded to 47 emergencies in 50 countries. We are currently responding to an outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, very near the border with Uganda. As of today, there have been 373 cases and 216 deaths since the outbreak started in August. So far, we have managed to prevent Ebola from spreading across the border, largely because we have much better tools with which to fight Ebola than at any time in history. More than 32,000 people have been vaccinated, which is one of the reasons the outbreak has not spread further than it has. We also have ways to treat those infected. So far, 150 people have been treated with one of four drugs. 14 million travelers have been screened, there have been more than 190 safe and dignified burials, we have done door-to-door advocacy in almost 4000 households and we have trained more than 500 community leaders. But this outbreak has been much more difficult to control, largely because of the security situation in eastern DRC. Armed groups operating in the area conduct regular attacks on the city of Beni, the epicentre of the outbreak. And every time there is an attack, the virus gets an advantage. Vaccination and contact tracing are disrupted.
Health security and health systems are two sides of the same coin. The best long-term investment in protecting and promoting the right to health is to invest in stronger health systems. Because there is simply no other way to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals than primary health care, with a focus on health promotion and disease prevention. But it will also require WHO and the global health community to work in a much more integrated and coherent way. That’s why WHO and 10 other international health agencies have agreed to work together on a Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being. The plan has three strategic approaches: integrate, accelerate and account. First, we have committed to integrate many of our processes to increase our collective efficiency. Second, we have committed to accelerate progress by identifying areas of work in which we can truly bend the curve and make more rapid progress towards the health-related SDGs – like research and development, data and sustainable financing. And third, we have committed to keep each other accountable, both to the people we serve, and to the donors and partners who expect results from the resources they give us.
衛生安全和醫療衛生體系是同一事物的兩個方面。保護和促進健康權的最佳長期投資方式是投資更強大的醫療衛生體系。初級衛生保健以促進健康和預防疾病為重點，而除了初級衛生保健，根本沒有其他方法可以實現全民健康覆蓋與可持續發展目標（Sustainable Development Goals）。但這還需要世衛組織與全球衛生界加強協調合作。這就是世衛組織與其他10個國際衛生機構同意共同推行“全球健康生活與福祉行動計劃”（Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being）的原因。這項計劃有三大戰略方法：整合流程、加快進程與承擔責任。首先，我們已承諾整合諸多流程，提高集體效率。其次，我們已承諾，通過確定能夠真正扭轉局勢的工作領域（如研發、數據和可持續融資領域），加速實現與健康相關的可持續發展目標，從而加快進程。最后，我們已承諾人人承擔責任，不僅對所服務的對象負責，也要對出資出力、期待其有所成效的捐助者與合作者負責。
漢譯英 passage 1
The importance of the Internet in China’s reform and opening up cannot be overstated. The year of 2000 marks the beginning of nearly two decades’ popularity the Internet has enjoyed in China. Especially over the last 15 years, the Internet has played a decisive role in sustaining rapid development of the country. Economic development is enabled, crucially, by two factors: first, the improvement of production efficiency with higher product quality and more creative designs, and second, open channels through which factory products can be delivered to customers at the fastest speed and lowest cost. That is how the Internet decisively accounts for China’s industrial development.
The development of the Internet has significantly narrowed our gap with advanced countries in design concepts and design talents. We are offered a faster access to the world’s state-of-the-art design techniques and concepts by the Internet. More importantly, the Internet can bring about more effects. This has greatly accelerated economic development.
As for channels, the Internet has an even more evident effect, for example, on e-commerce. It has made it easier for ordinary people to express their own will, and share critical comments on some of our existing products, which will facilitate the production of enterprises and the modernization of government functions. Firstly, people in urban and rural areas, by going online, are equal in accessing and communicating information, which allows all of them to see the development of China and Chinese cities in real time. The Internet then stimulates the aspirations of common people to seek a better life, and turns their aspirations into a powerful driving force for development.