1. Better writing: guide readers through what you write
寫作提高:通過你所寫的內容來引導讀者

Your task is to help readers understand your message quickly and precisely. To do this, it is necessary to show them clearly how the different parts relate to each other.
你的任務是幫助讀者迅速且準確地理解你的信息。為了做到這一點,向他們清楚地展示每個不同部分之間的聯系是很有必要的。

Each sentence, each paragraph should be relevant to what comes before and what comes after.
每個句子、每段話都應該與上下文有所聯系。

2. Word choice: avoid clichés and buzzwords
選詞:避免老生常談和專業術語

Clichés (used so often and so vaguely that they lose their original impact) and buzzwords/jargon can irritate readers and either distract them from your message or make them question its validity.
老生常談(經常被使用,表意不清且失去原有意義)和專業術語會引起讀者的不快,既不能將他們吸引到你的文章上來,也會使他們質疑其有效性。

3. Writing your CV/résumé: make your CV/résumé easy to read
制作簡歷:使你的簡歷更具可讀性

Research shows that one thing recruiters expect in a CV/résumé is ease of reading. Ways of making yours easy to read include a brief summary of where you are now and where you want to go, short sentences and paragraphs, clear headings, good use of bullet points, and appropriate typefaces.
研究表明,招聘者希望簡歷更易閱讀。使簡歷更具閱讀性的方法包括簡單總結你所處的位置、短的句子和段落、清晰的標題、重點突出以及合適的字體。

4. Writing a cover letter: tailor your cover letter
求職信寫作:使你的求職信更得體

A generic cover letter simply will not do; make sure your letter is tailored to the job and company in question. Reflect the organization’s values and goals; research what it says about its history, current practice, mission statement, and so forth. But don’t just parrot their exact wording. It sounds robotic, and employers hate it.
一般的求職信不會這樣;你要確保你的求職信能夠適合你考慮的職位和公司。反映出組織的價值和目標;研究一下其歷史、現行實踐、宗旨等等。但是不要機械地模仿他們的準確措辭。這聽起來就很機械,也無法得到招聘者的青睞。

5. Writing essays: understand your audience
論文:了解你的讀者

The more you know about who will be reading your essay, the better. Readers who are experts on your topic will already have some background knowledge. Readers who are your age will be familiar with the same films and songs you’re likely to mention. The less you know about your audience, the more you’ll need to define your terms and provide context for your examples.
你對于閱讀你文章的讀者越了解,效果就越好。對你的主題非常了解的讀者已經有了一些基本的知識。和你同齡的讀者會對你可能會提到的電影和歌曲感到熟悉。你對讀者了解的越少,你就需要花更多的精力來解釋你的措辭、并為語境舉出例子。

6. Writing a personal statement: create a strong opening
個人陳述寫作:有力的開頭

As with any other piece of writing, you need to get your readers’ attention. A compelling personal story can be an effective beginning. Let your story lead to a discussion of how you became interested in the type of work or education you are pursuing. You might also start by writing about someone you admire in the industry or organization.
與其他的文體一樣,你需要吸引讀者的注意力。一個引人注目的個人故事可以成為一個有效的開頭。使你的故事能夠引入你對自己探尋的工作或教育產生興趣的原因。你也可以以描寫你在該行業或組織里敬仰的人物來開頭。

7. Online writing: create a good title
網上寫作:寫一個好的標題

Your title is one of the ways people find your piece. It should also make them want to read on. So it’s well worth investing time to get it right. The pay-off will be not only more readers but also readers who engage fully with what you write.
你的標題是人們發現你的作品的方式之一。它也可以是人們產生閱讀的興趣。所以花些時間來想一個好的標題是非常值得的。如果你成功了,就可以吸引更多讀者,也會使他們全神貫注地投入到你的作品中去。

8. Creative writing: show rather than tell
創造性寫作:展示而非灌輸

Too much description, too many adjectives and adverbs, can slow up your narrative and cause your readers to lose interest. Where possible, it’s better to show your readers what a person, the atmosphere in the room, the relationship between your characters is like – show, that is, by what they say, how they interact, what they do. It’s more effective than telling the reader through wordy piles of information.
太多的描述、太多的形容詞和副詞會使你的敘述變得慢起來,導致讀者失去興趣。可能的話,向你的讀者展示一個人的樣子、房間里的氛圍、人物之間的關系,展示的意思,按他們的方式說,就是他們是怎樣相互聯系,做了什么。比起通過冗長的信息告訴讀者情況,展示則更加有效。

9. Writing a speech: write for the ear, not for the eye
演講稿寫作:聽覺性寫作,而非視覺性寫作

Once you’ve finished a draft of your speech, practice reading it out loud. You’ll hear anything that sounds awkward. Revise so you are more comfortable giving your speech. You want to sound natural, no matter what the occasion.
一旦你完成演講稿的草稿,就將它大聲讀出來。你會聽到一些不足的地方。將其進行修正,你就可以更加舒適地發表你的演講。不管在什么場合,你的聲音都要自然。

10. Writing a review: explain how you’re judging the work
綜述寫作:解釋你評價作品的方式

Decide on your criteria, the standards you’ll use to judge the book, show, or film. You might believe a novel is successful when it has characters you care about and a plot that makes you want to keep reading. State these criteria so your readers understand what you believe.
決定了你的標準后,你會將其運用于書籍、展出或電影。你可能會相信,當一篇小說里有你在乎的人物,且情節引人入勝的時候,它就成功了。將這些標準成熟出來,你的讀者就會對你所相信的事物表示理解。

聲明:本雙語文章的中文翻譯系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文翻譯僅代表譯者個人觀點,僅供參考。如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。